On-chain governance: The greatest virtue of Polkadot

Polkadot governance explained

Governance roles

  • DOT holders (community)
  • Council
  • Technical committee
Source: https://polkadot.network/launch-governance/

DOT Holders

DOT holders' rights:

  • submit a public proposal
  • vote council members
  • vote in referendums
  • submit a tip


Council rights

  • propose a referendum
  • cancels dangerous referendum (only once, their veto can be canceled by the community in another referendum)
  • manage the treasury
  • elect the Technical Committee members

Technical Committee

Technical committee rights:

  • fast-track the proposal to reduce the time being voted on the referendum queue

The governance process

Source: The First Polkadot Vote… by Gavin Wood

Proposals & Motions

Treasury proposals

  • spending of the treasury
  • tips: rewards for the community members for acting that benefits the network — tutorials, translations
  • bounties


Source: wiki.polkadot.network

How to propose a referendum?

  • Publicly submitted proposals
  • Council submitted proposals — those can pass unanimously or through a majority
  • Proposals submitted as part of the enactment of a prior referendum
  • Emergency proposals submitted by the Technical Committee and approved by the Council

Voting mechanism

Source: Polkadot Governance

Positive Turnout Bias

  • used for public proposals
  • the more people vote in the referendum, the easier it gets to pass

Neutral Turnout Bias

  • used for proposals with 60% support from the Council
  • a simple majority is necessary for passing the referendum

Negative Turnout Bias

  • used for proposals with unanimous support from the Council
  • fewer people to vote in the referendum, the easier it gets to pass it

Governance tools


Polkassembly interface


SubSquare.io interface


Commonwealth.im interface

What's next? The governance news!


  1. Polkadot Wiki: Governance
  2. Polkadot Blog: A Walkthrough of Polkadots Governance
  3. Polkadot Governance by Joe Petrowski



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Polkadotters | Kusama & Polkadot validators

Polkadotters | Kusama & Polkadot validators

Czech bloggers & community builders. We are validators of Polkadot, Kusama, Darwinia, Crab, Bifrost, HydraDX, StaFi, Centrifuge under the name: POLKADOTTERS